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Originally posted on Southeast Beautiful Kratom, by Kami Davis
When it comes to Kratom, people may not always see eye to eye. However, someone’s negative opinion of this plant really does not matter when that opinion is up against FACTS and SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE.
Below is an article SCIENTIFICALLY PROVING that Kratom does not recruit b arrestin, thus significantly decreasing any chance for respiratory depression/overdose.
Why Kratom Isn’t Harmfully Addictive ~
‘Kratom’s primary alkaloids are Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, and a scientific study found that these alkaloids are mu-opioid agonists, which results in pain and stress relief, but simultaneously are delta opioid antagonists and fail to recruit beta-arrestin-2.’
‘Basically, beta-arrestin-2 is an intracellular protein that causes the suppression of norepinephrine, i.e. adrenaline. Essentially, Morphine-like opioids suppress norepinephrine via recruiting beta-arrestin-2, and this suppression of norepinephrine is what leads to respiratory depression and the potential for overdose due to the respiratory system shutting down.’
‘Further, the suppression of norepinephrine is the primary cause of physical addiction and withdrawals for morphine-like opioids. Essentially, when a morphine-like opioid is discontinued, norepinephrine surges through the body, causing restless legs, insomnia, nausea, anxiety, and shaking, i.e. dope sickness.’ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5344672/
Below is a study proving the effects Kratom had on various individuals. Individuals were being treated for chronic pain, anxiety, and depression who ALL were treated successfully, with fantastic results, and high ratings of effectiveness.
‘Kratom May Have Less Abuse Potential Than Opioids’
‘The herbal supplement kratom may be less addictive and more effective for the management of pain than opioids, according to new research.’
‘2,798 kratom users – mean age 40 (SD = 12); predominantly White (90 %), female (61 %), and located in the US (97 %) – completed the survey. Kratom was primarily taken orally in doses of 1?3 g (49 %), with daily use (59 %) being most common. Kratom was used for pain (91 %), anxiety (67 %), and depression (65 %), with high ratings of effectiveness. 1,144 (41 %) used kratom to stop or reduce prescription or illicit opioid use, citing decreased opioid withdrawal and craving related to kratom use, with 411 reporting >1-year continuous abstinence from opioids attributed to kratom use. Roughly one-third of respondents reported adverse effects of kratom, largely rated as mild in severity and lasting ?24 h. Seventeen participants (0.6 %) sought treatment for adverse effects. Fifty-six individuals (2 %) met DSM-5 criteria for a past-year moderate or severe kratom-related substance use disorder (SUD). When asked how troubled they felt regarding their kratom use, the mean (SD) rating was 3.2 (9.8) on a scale from 0 to 100.’https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/kratom-may-have-less-abuse-potential-opioids?fbclid=IwAR0SrRCf22qLwxBRSCnkRPxmTB_SBMQxufyBjQ8_zoaPJmPTxYHvzwUpKdY
Kratom Reduces Neuropathic Pain ~
‘Conclusion and Implication’
‘The finding that MG reduced neuropathic pain through a mechanism requiring active ?-adrenoceptors indicates that the pharmacological profile of MG includes activation of adrenergic, as well as opioid, systems.’
Assessing physiological dependence and withdrawal potential of mitragynine using schedule-controlled behaviour in rats
Norsyifa Harun et al. Psychopharmacology (Berl).2020 Mar.
‘Rationale: Kratom is proposed to exhibit therapeutic potential as an opium substitute, but little is known about its dependence-producing profile, particularly of its main psychoactive compound, mitragynine (MG).’
‘Conclusion: The findings suggest that MG does not induce physiological dependence but can alleviate the physical symptoms associated with morphine withdrawal which represent the desired characteristics of novel pharmacotherapeutic interventions for managing opioid use disorder (OUD).https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31832720/‘
What NIDA THINKS! ???
In the words of Dr. Jack Henningfield, Ph. D. ,, one of the world’s leading addiction specialists (Chief of Biology/Dependence and Abuse Potential Assessment) for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, a member of the John Hopkins University School of Medicine faculty, since 1978 and is presently Adjunct Professor of Behavioral Biology at the Medical School’s Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences ~ concludes that it is not an opioid by definition.
Mitragynine is the alkaloid in Kratom. Kratom leaves contain 25 identifiable alkaloids. Mitragynine (MG) and 7-Hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG) are the main psychoactive alkaloids in Kratom. MG and 7-HMG are PARTIAL agonists.
The big difference between Kratom and Morphine/opiates/opioids is this: NATURE GOT IT RIGHT. It has such low traces of 7-HMG and MG, that it cannot hurt you; but just enough to help you. Dependence is so low, to be harmful.
Opioids such as morphine, have negative side-effects on the central nervous system, including impairment/ drowsiness, brain fog, respiratory depression, and severe addiction with deadly withdrawals. Kratom does none of those things. Instead, Kratom’s alkaloids produce effects such as alertness and focus ~ the opposite of what morphine and high risk opioids do.
Lastly, Kratom doesn’t encourage a person to want to drink, along with it. It is the opposite. It makes you want to establish healthy habits, unlike opioids. ©KamiDavis2019
Kratom Helps Alcoholism SIGNIFICANTLY ~ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31396844/?i=1&from=study+mice+on+kratom
Kratom Helps Depression SIGNIFICANTLY ~ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32248751/?from_term=kratom&from_sort=date&from_pos=2
Saving the best for last, you will find below is the amazing study and article published by YALE JOURNAL of BIOLOGY and MEDICINE; clearly explaining a live clinical study done by them, indicating proof of Kratom’s safety and effectiveness. Participants who were longtime consumers experienced zero discomfort, no withdrawals, and no adverse reactions!
‘Kratom and Pain Tolerance: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study’
‘Balasingam Vicknasingama, Weng Tink Chooib, Azlan Abdul Rahima, Dinesh Ramachandrama, Darshan Singha, Surash Ramanathana, Nur Sabrina Mohd Yusofa, Hadzliana Zainalc, Vikneswaran Murugaiyahc, Ralitza Gueorguievad, Sharif Mahsufi Mansora, and Marek C. Chawarskie,*
aCentre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; bSchool of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; cSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; dYale School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, and Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT; eYale School of Medicine, Departments of Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine, New Haven, CT
Background: Kratom has a long history of traditional medicine use in Southeast Asia. Consumption of kratom products has also been reported in the US and other regions of the world. Pain relief is among many self-reported kratom effects but have not been evaluated in controlled human subject research. Methods: Kratom effects on pain tolerance were assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double- blind study. During a 1-day inpatient stay, participants received a randomized sequence of kratom and placebo decoctions matched for taste and appearance. Pain tolerance was measured objectively in a cold pressor task (CPT) as time (seconds) between the pain onset and the hand withdrawal from the ice bath. Health status, vital signs, objective, and subjective indicators of withdrawal symptoms, self-reported data on lifetime kratom use patterns, and assessments of blinding procedures were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-six males with the mean (SD) age 24.3 (3.4) years were enrolled. They reported the mean (SD) 6.1 (3.2) years of daily kratom consumption. Pain tolerance increased significantly 1 hour after kratom ingestion from the mean (SD) 11.2 (6.7) seconds immediately before to 24.9 (39.4) seconds 1 hour after kratom consumption (F(2,53.7)=4.33, p=0.02). Pain tolerance was unchanged after consuming placebo drinks: 15.0 (19.0) seconds immediately before and 12.0 (8.1) seconds 1 hour after consumption of placebo (F(2,52.8)=0.93, p=0.40). No discomfort or signs of withdrawal were reported or observed during 10-20 hours of kratom discontinuation. Conclusions: Kratom decoction demonstrated a substantial and statistically significant increase in pain tolerance. Further rigorous research on kratom pain-relieving properties and a safety profile is needed.
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed: Marek C. Chawarski, Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, CMHC/SAC, Room S206, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT, 06519; Tel: +1-203-974-7602; Fax: +1-203-974-7606; Email: marek. email@example.com; ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6254-3092.
Abbreviations: CPT, cold pressor task; BBB, blood-brain barrier; ATS, amphetamine type stimulants; TLFB, Timeline Follow Back; VAS, visual analogue scale; COWS, Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale.
Keywords: kratom, pain tolerance, plant medicine
Copyright © 2020’
‘No adverse effects were observed in the study. All participants completed all study tasks and procedures, and none reported any discomfort or unusual symptoms. None of the participants reported withdrawal symptoms either using spontaneous self-report or had significant withdrawal symptoms based on the COWS scores. All urine toxicology screens conducted at the end of the test- ing day were negative.
All participants reported long histories of daily kratom consumption, with high frequency of daily con- sumption and substantial amounts consumed. It is not possible to quantify these reports into markers that could be used to approximate amounts of plant material or ac- tive ingredients consumed. However, despite the reported long duration and high levels of daily kratom consump- tion, during documented kratom discontinuation lasting from 10 to 20 hours, no participant reported or displayed discomfort, symptoms, or signs of potential withdrawal symptoms.
A substantial amount of misinformation has been published in literature and disseminated in media reports, creating a misconception that kratom is simply a danger- ous opioid. Kratom is a plant that contains many alka- loids and other potentially active substances [1,21,23]. Psychoactive effects of consuming plant material are likely to result from synergistic interactions among many substances, including possible competing agonist and antagonist effects on opioid and other receptors ’ https://://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309661/pdf/yjbm_93_2_229.pdf
….And after everything you’ve just read, if you are still against Kratom remaining legal, then you are clearly part of the FDA’S disinformation campaign and purposely trying to break the system even more.
Written By Kami Davis ??